(also known as acetyl hexapeptide 3) is the primary amino acid
responsible for the wrinkle reduction of Pretox. The sole difference
between the two formulae (10 and 20) is that Pretox-10 contains
10% Argireline (acetyl hexapeptide 3) and Pretox-20 contains 20%
Argireline (acetyl hexapeptide 3) making the latter twice as powerful.
Pretox-10 and 20 both contain all the same ingredients even including
Hyaluronic Acid to help reduce wrinkles. Each wrinkle treatment
uses our unique Liposome Delivery System to further increase wrinkle
Before you can understand how wrinkle reduction with Protox works,
you need to be familiar with how muscle contractions are stimulated.
Remember, it is the attenuation or muting of muscle contraction
in the facial muscle groups which allows wrinkles to 'flatten
out' and become much less visible. The following is for educational
When a nerve fires an 'action potential', which is a wave of cell
wall depolarization, it travels down the nerve fibre until it
reaches the synaptic cleft which is the gap between the nerve
and muscle tissue. The two tissues are not physically connected
otherwise all 'flashes' of nerve activity would cause muscle contraction
irrespective of the intensity or duration of nerve impulse.
An action potential must reach a certain level before it causes
the 'synaptic vesicles' to fuse with the neurone cell wall (called
exocytosis). This is rather like a soap bubble bursting and releasing
it's contents into the surface that bumps into. In this case however,
the contents of the vesicle is a neuro-transmitter called Acetylcholine
(Ach). The ACh is therefore released into the synapic cleft space
where the majority is taken back up by the nerve or broken down
by an enzyme present in the synaptic cleft called Acetylcholisterase.
Again if only a small amount of ACh reaches the muscle receptors,
a contraction will not take place - so the small amount not re-absorbed
or not broken down and reaching the muscle receptors will not
cause a muscle contraction.
As the nerve action potential gets more and more intense, more
ACh is released eventually leading to sufficient ACh landing on
the muscle receptors, which then react by changing shape and letting
in sodium ions. The inflood of positively charged Sodium ions
sets up a new wave of depolarisation in the muscle fibre causing
The diagram to the left shows the mechanism of action of Protox-like
peptides. Note how two vesicles are releasing Ach into the synapse
above but now with Protox added, only one vesicle fuses with the
nerve fibre cell wall, thereby reducing the amount of Ach released
or another way of looking at it - increasing the amount of stimulation
required before muscle contractions occurs.